Smokeless Tobacco Use in Iran: A Systematic Review

Addict Health. 2020 Jul;12(3):225-234. doi: 10.22122/ahj.v12i3.274.


Background: Smokeless tobacco (ST) use is one of the most important public health problems in Southeast Asia. The use of these substances increases the incidence of some cancers and other diseases. The purpose of this review study was to investigate on ST use in Iran.

Methods: A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Google Scholar, and three national databases [Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, and IranDoc] based on the standard search strategy.

Findings: Most consumer people lived in Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Zahedan and Chabahar Cities) and Golestan Province, Iran. ST use rates ranged from 11.0% to 45.7% among college students in Sistan and Baluchestan (Zahedan and Chabahar) and Golestan. There are various types of ST consumed in Iran that have been mentioned in various articles, including Pan, Gutka, Nass, Naswar, Biti, and Supari.

Conclusion: Most studies on ST have been conducted in Sistan and Baluchestan and Golestan Provinces and we need more research for other provinces. Consumption by women is a warning and a threat to women's health in the future. Further studies will be needed to find out more precisely the prevalence of consumption in Iran.

Keywords: Iran; Systematic review; Tobacco use cessation.

Publication types

  • Review