Aims/introduction: Several clinical trials reported the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors in type 1 diabetes patients. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of SGLT inhibitors in type 1 diabetes patients.
Materials and methods: Relevant studies were identified in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wan Fang databases through 1 April 2020. Differences were expressed as the 95% confidence interval (CI) or weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous outcomes, and risk ratio (RR) for discontinuous outcomes.
Results: A total of 13 RCTs with 7,962 cases were included. SGLT inhibitors reduced the fasting plasma glucose level (WMD -1.320 mmol/L, 95% CI -1.609 to -1.031, P < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin level (WMD -0.386%, 95% CI -0.431 to -0.342, P < 0.001) and daily total insulin dose (WMD -5.403, 95% CI -7.218 to -3.859, P < 0.001). However, higher risks of diabetic ketoacidosis (RR 5.042, 95% CI 3.160-8.046, P < 0.001), urinary tract infections (RR 1.259, 95% CI 1.034-1.533,P = 0.022) and genital infections (RR 2.995, 95% CI 1.953-4.594, P < 0.001) were associated with SGLT inhibitors, but SGLT inhibitors did not increase the hypoglycemia risk (RR 0.980, 95% CI 0.840-1.144,P = 0.799). In subgroup analysis, with a significant reduction of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin and daily insulin doses, SGLT1/2 inhibitor did not increase genitourinary tract infections compared with a placebo.
Conclusions: SGLT2 and SGLT1/2 inhibitors can improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus type 1; Effects; Sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors.
© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.