Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell. Arg, a medicinal plant distributed throughout India from Kashmir to peninsular-Indian region is extensively used to treat jaundice, asthma, and constipation. In the current study, 203 endophytic fungi representing twenty-nine species were isolated from tissues of B. montanum. The colonization and isolation rate of endophytes were higher in stem followed by seed, root, leaf and flower. The phytochemical analysis revealed 70% endophytic isolates showed alkaloids and flavonoids, 13% were positive for phenols, saponins and terpenoids. Further, these endophytes produced remarkable extracellular enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, phosphates, protease and lipase. The most promisive three endophytic fungi were identified by ITS region and secreted metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The GC-MS profile detected twenty-five bioactive compounds from ethyl acetate extracts. Among endophytic fungi, Trichoderma reesei isolated from flower exhibited nine bioactive compounds namely, 2-Cyclopentenone, 2-(4-chloroanilino)-4-piperidino, Oxime-methoxy-Phenyl, Methanamine N-hydroxy-N-methyl, Strychane, Cyclotetrasiloxane, Octamethyl and 1-Acetyl-20a-hydroxy-16-methylene. The endophyte, Aspergillus brasiliensis isolated from root and Fusarium oxysporum isolated from seed produced nine and seven bioactive compounds, respectively. Overall, a significant contribution of bioactive compounds was noticed from the diverse endophytic fungi associated with B. montanum and could be explored for development of novel drug with commercial values.
Keywords: Baliospermum montanum; Bioactive compounds; Endophytic fungi; Extracellular enzymes; GC-MS analysis; Phytochemicals.
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