Radiopharmaceuticals for Neuroendocrine Tumors

Semin Radiat Oncol. 2021 Jan;31(1):60-70. doi: 10.1016/j.semradonc.2020.07.007.


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that originate in endocrine tissues throughout the body. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic option for patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic disease refractory to standard of care treatment. The landmark international phase III NETTER-1 trial led to the approval of 177Lu-DOTATATE (Lutathera) in the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic NETs. Similarly, data from the multicenter, phase II Study IB12B led to the approval of meta-[131I]Iodo-Benzyl-Guanidine (I31I-MIBG) for treatment of iobenguane scan-positive, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. With the clinical approval of these novel radiopharmaceuticals for managing select patients with NETs, additional studies are needed to refine patient selection, predict and assess therapy response, and optimize radiopharmaceutical delivery and clinical outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors* / diagnostic imaging
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors* / drug therapy
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors* / radiotherapy
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use


  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • copper dotatate CU-64