A retrospective analysis of 15 renal transplant patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was performed. Overall actuarial patient and graft survival at 6 years was 93 and 84%, respectively. Recipients of HLA-identical kidneys did not appear to be at increased risk of allograft failure due to rejection or recurrent disease. Two biopsy-proven cases of recurrent lupus involving the allograft were observed and are discussed. Those patients currently experiencing excellent graft function (creatinine less than 2 mg/dl) had a significantly longer pretransplantation dialytic interval than the group whose most recent serum creatinine exceeds 2 mg/dl (or returned to dialysis). Posttransplantation monitoring of antinuclear antibody, antidouble-stranded DNA, C3, C4, and circulating immune complexes was not predictive of renal or extrarenal disease activity. Renal transplantation should be considered an excellent therapeutic modality for the lupus patient with ESRD, although an interim period on dialysis of at least 1 year seems warranted.