Orbital reconstruction - applied materials, therapeutic agents and clinical problems of restoration of defects

Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 5:892:173766. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173766. Epub 2020 Nov 27.


Reconstruction of large cavities in the skull and facial regions is important not only to restore health but also for the correction of facial distortions. Every visible deformity in the facial region of the patient affects their mental wellness and perception by society, entailing both, deterioration of health, but also a decrease in the performance in society, which translates into its productivity. With the progressive degradation of the natural environment, cancer, in the coming years, will be on the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The review focuses on two main aspects: (i) the causes of injuries leading to the necessity of removal of orbital cavities occupied by the tumor and then their reconstruction, with the focus on the anatomical structure of the orbital cavity, (ii) the materials used to reconstruct the orbital cavities and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. The manuscript also underlines the not yet fully met challenges in the area of facial- and craniofacial reconstruction in people affected by cancer.

Keywords: Craniofacial reconstruction; Hydroxyapatite; Medpor; Polycaprolactone; Polyethylene.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Substitutes / adverse effects
  • Bone Substitutes / therapeutic use*
  • Bone Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Eye Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Eye Injuries / pathology
  • Eye Injuries / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Orbit / diagnostic imaging
  • Orbit / injuries
  • Orbit / pathology
  • Orbit / surgery*
  • Orbital Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • Orbital Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / adverse effects
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / instrumentation*
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Bone Substitutes