Novel Approaches for Treating Autonomously Functioning Thyroid Nodules

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Oct 30:11:565371. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.565371. eCollection 2020.


Benign thyroid nodules are exceedingly common in the adult population. Only a small percentage of nodules are toxic or autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). The options clinicians have for treating the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include anti-thyroidal medications, radioactive iodine, or surgery. Depending on the patient population treated, these options may not be suitable or have inherent risks that are undesirable to the patient. On the other hand, untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to osteoporosis, atrial fibrillation, emotional lability, and neurological consequences. Thus, we present a review of two novel safe and effective approaches for treating AFTN; one surgical (transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery) and one non-surgical (radiofrequency ablation), as a means for expanding our treatment armamentarium.

Keywords: benign thyroid nodules; hyperthyroidism; radiofrequency ablation; toxic nodules; transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endoscopy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Radiofrequency Ablation / methods*
  • Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis*
  • Thyroid Nodule / therapy*