The White-Spotted Bamboo Shark Genome Reveals Chromosome Rearrangements and Fast-Evolving Immune Genes of Cartilaginous Fish

iScience. 2020 Nov 2;23(11):101754. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101754. eCollection 2020 Nov 20.


Chondrichthyan (cartilaginous fish) occupies a key phylogenetic position and is important for investigating evolutionary processes of vertebrates. However, limited whole genomes impede our in-depth knowledge of important issues such as chromosome evolution and immunity. Here, we report the chromosome-level genome of white-spotted bamboo shark. Combing it with other shark genomes, we reconstructed 16 ancestral chromosomes of bamboo shark and illustrate a dynamic chromosome rearrangement process. We found that genes on 13 fast-evolving chromosomes can be enriched in immune-related pathways. And two chromosomes contain important genes that can be used to develop single-chain antibodies, which were shown to have high affinity to human disease markers by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also found three bone formation-related genes were lost due to chromosome rearrangements. Our study highlights the importance of chromosome rearrangements, providing resources for understanding of cartilaginous fish diversification and potential application of single-chain antibodies.

Keywords: Biological Sciences; Evolutionary Biology; Genetics; Genomics; Phylogenetics.