Apolipoprotein J (ApoJ), or clusterin, is one of the main apolipoproteins in the brain. It is synthesized and released from astrocytes in a healthy brain, and its expression increases in neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic evidence has suggested an association between ApoJ polymorphism and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-it is now considered the third main genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. However, the role of ApoJ overexpression in the state of disorder, toxicity, or protection is not yet clear. Since ApoJ plays different roles in AD, we review the function of ApoJ using different cell signaling pathways in AD and outline its paradoxical roles in AD. ApoJ helps in amyloid-beta (Aβ) clearance. Vice versa, ApoJ gene knock-out causes fibrillary Aβ reduction and prevents Aβ-induced neuron cell death. Understanding ApoJ, through various cellular signaling pathways, creates a new perspective on AD's cellular principles. The overall message is that ApoJ can be a valuable tool in controlling AD.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; ApoJ; amyloid-beta; cell signaling pathway; clusterin; neurodegenerative disorders.