A Scoping Review of the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model

J Sch Nurs. 2021 Feb;37(1):61-68. doi: 10.1177/1059840520974346. Epub 2020 Nov 28.


The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model is a student-centered approach that focuses on a culture of health to support student success. Despite its use, the empirical evidence supporting the model is unclear. We conducted a scoping review to understand the research supporting WSCC as a model for student/school health. The search included studies published in English language peer-reviewed journals from 2014 to 2020. Eight articles met criteria for review. Overall, findings from this review reveal a relatively small body of research specific to the WSCC model. Because WSCC is presented as a model for schools throughout the United States, the development of a larger body of research supporting the model as an evidence-based framework will enhance credibility and confidence in the model. School nurses, as leaders, coordinators, and advocates, are well positioned to test and disseminate the model to those seeking to introduce WSCC in their school or district.

Keywords: Whole Child; Whole Community; Whole School; school health; school nursing; scoping review.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Family
  • Health Policy*
  • Humans
  • School Health Services*
  • Schools
  • Students
  • United States