Epidemiological Research of Microtia Combined With Congenital Heart Disease

J Craniofac Surg. 2021 May 1;32(3):920-924. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007296.


Summary: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common combined malformations of microtia. There is currently no specific study that investigates the relationship between microtia and CHD.

Methods: This study collected microtia inpatients admitted from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2016. The diagnosis of CHD was based on patient's symptoms, past history, and echocardiography. Pearson χ2 test was used to analyze the correlation between CHD and microtia.

Results: A total of 30 cases (3.35%) were documented with CHD, including atrial septal defect (12/40.00%), ventricular septal defect (7/23.30%), patent ductus arteriosus (2/6.70%), complex congenital heart disease (3/10.00%), combined CHD (2/6.70%) and other malformations (4/13.30%). Analysis showed no statistically significant relation between CHD and the side of affected ear or gender.

Conclusions: The occurrence of CHD in microtia patients was higher than that in the general population. The relationship between them was explored mainly from the etiological perspective. Microtia and CHD were often combined in syndromes such as Goldenhar syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome, and CHARGE syndrome. Absence of genes or abnormal embryo development associated with these syndromes leads to the occurrence of both.

MeSH terms

  • Congenital Microtia* / epidemiology
  • Echocardiography
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / complications
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / epidemiology
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial*
  • Humans