The neuropeptide SMYamide, a SIFamide paralog, is expressed by salivary gland innervating neurons in the American cockroach and likely functions as a hormone

Peptides. 2021 Feb:136:170466. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2020.170466. Epub 2020 Nov 28.


The SMYamide genes are paralogs of the SIFamide genes and code for neuropeptides that are structurally similar to SIFamide. In the American cockroach, Periplanea americana, the SMYamide gene is specifically expressed in the SN2 neurons that innervate the salivary glands and are known to produce action potentials during feeding. The SN2 axon terminals surround rather than directly innervate the salivary gland acini. Therefore one may expect that on activation of these neurons significant amounts of SMYamide will be released into the hemolymph, thus suggesting that SMYamide may also have a hormonal function. In the Periplaneta genome there are two putative SIFamide receptors and these are both expressed not only in the central nervous system and the salivary gland, but also in the gonads and other peripheral tissues. This reinforces the hypothesis that SMYamide also has an endocrine function in this species.

Keywords: GPCR; Gonad; Hormone; Innervation; SIFamide; SMYamide; Salivary gland.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / genetics*
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism
  • Periplaneta / genetics
  • Periplaneta / metabolism
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics*
  • Salivary Glands / innervation
  • Salivary Glands / metabolism*


  • Neuropeptides
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide