We report data on the structural dynamics of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) type 1 (Y1R), a typical representative of class A peptide ligand GPCRs, using a combination of solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. First, the equilibrium dynamics of Y1R were studied using 15N-NMR and quantitative determination of 1H-13C order parameters through the measurement of dipolar couplings in separated-local-field NMR experiments. Order parameters reporting the amplitudes of the molecular motions of the C-H bond vectors of Y1R in DMPC membranes are 0.57 for the Cα sites and lower in the side chains (0.37 for the CH2 and 0.18 for the CH3 groups). Different NMR excitation schemes identify relatively rigid and also dynamic segments of the molecule. In monounsaturated membranes composed of longer lipid chains, Y1R is more rigid, attributed to a higher hydrophobic thickness of the lipid membrane. The presence of an antagonist or NPY has little influence on the amplitude of motions, whereas the addition of agonist and arrestin led to a pronounced rigidization. To investigate Y1R dynamics with site resolution, we conducted extensive all-atom MD simulations of the apo and antagonist-bound state. In each state, three replicas with a length of 20 μs (with one exception, where the trajectory length was 10 μs) were conducted. In these simulations, order parameters of each residue were determined and showed high values in the transmembrane helices, whereas the loops and termini exhibit much lower order. The extracellular helix segments undergo larger amplitude motions than their intracellular counterparts, whereas the opposite is observed for the loops, Helix 8, and termini. Only minor differences in order were observed between the apo and antagonist-bound state, whereas the time scale of the motions is shorter for the apo state. Although these relatively fast motions occurring with correlation times of ns up to a few µs have no direct relevance for receptor activation, it is believed that they represent the prerequisite for larger conformational transitions in proteins.
Keywords: GPCR; MD simulation; NMR spectroscopy; arrestin; molecular switch; structural dynamics.