Introduction: Transperineal Prostate biopsies (TPBx) are usually performed under general anesthesia without image fusion. This study aimed to evaluate prostate cancer (Pca) detection rates (CDR), pain, and adverse events using a novel, free-hand TPBx technique, based on elastic fusion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) under local anesthesia.
Materials and methods: This multicenter retrospective study included all consecutive patients scheduled for a TPBx. All had clinical suspicion of Pca, active surveillance scheduled for a re-biopsy, or suspicion of local recurrence after previous treatment. Bi-parametric or multiparametric MRI was performed in all patients and classified as positive in the case of Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) suspicion ≥3. At least 1 targeted TPBx was realized from each PIRADS ≥3 index lesion. Six to 12 systematic random TPBx were done in patients with negative MRI. All biopsies were performed under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic with MRI-TRUS fusion and the 3D navigation system Trinity Perine (Koelis, France). Any- and clinically significant Pca (csPca) (ISUP gr. ≥2) was recorded. Biopsy-related pain and adverse events were reported according to a visual analogue score of 0-10.
Results: In total, 377 patients were included for analyses. The mean age was 67 years (95% Confidence Interval: 66-68) and the median prostate-specific antigen was 7.2 ng/ml (interquartile range [IQR] 4.8-11.0). MRI was negative in 6% and positive in 94%. The median MRI prostate volume was 43 ml (IQR 31-60) and the median MRI index tumor volume was 0.9 ml (IQR 0.5-2.1). The median number of TPBx was 4 (IQR 3-4). The overall detection of any- and csPca was 64% and 52%, respectively. The overall CDR according to PIRADS 3, 4, and 5 was 30%, 70%, and 94%, respectively. In patients with negative MRI, any- and csPca was detected in 23% and 9%, respectively. The median visual analogue score score was 2 (IQR 1-3, range 0-7). Two patients (0.5%) developed postbiopsy infection, of which one developed urosepsis. Treatment requiring haematuria or urinary retention did not occur.
Conclusion: Free-hand MRI/TRUS fusion-guided and systematic random TPBx in LA is a feasible, safe, and well-tolerated technique for diagnosing Pca.
Keywords: Local anaesthesia; MRI-TRUS image fusion; Prostate cancer; Transperineal prostate biopsy.
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