Latent infectious agents, microbial translocation, some metabolites and immune cell subpopulations, as well as senescence modulate the level and quality of activation of our immune system. Here, we tested whether various in vivo immune activation profiles may be distinguished in a general population. We measured 43 markers of immune activation by 8-color flow cytometry and ELISA in 150 adults, and performed a double hierarchical clustering of biomarkers and volunteers. We identified five different immune activation profiles. Profile 1 had a high proportion of naïve T cells. By contrast, Profiles 2 and 3 had an elevated percentage of terminally differentiated and of senescent CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, respectively. The fourth profile was characterized by NK cell activation, and the last profile, Profile 5, by a high proportion of monocytes. In search for etiologic factors that could determine these profiles, we observed a high frequency of naïve Treg cells in Profile 1, contrasting with a tendency to a low percentage of Treg cells in Profiles 2 and 3. Moreover, Profile 5 tended to have a high level of 16s ribosomal DNA, a direct marker of microbial translocation. These data are compatible with a model in which specific causes, as the frequency of Treg or the level of microbial translocation, shape specific profiles of immune activation. It will be of interest to analyze whether some of these profiles drive preferentially some morbidities known to be fueled by immune activation, as insulin resistance, atherothrombosis or liver steatosis.