Innate and adaptive immunity both contribute to allorecognition mechanisms that drive rejection after lung transplantation. Classic allorecognition pathways have been extensively described, but there continues to be several unanswered questions. Exosome research appears to be a novel and potentially significant area of allorecognition research and could be the missing link that answers some existing questions. This article reviews literature that is associated with allorecognition pathways and the role of exosomes in alloreactivity.
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