Five new tremulane sesquiterpenoids were isolated from co-culture of endophyte Irpex lacteus, phytopathogen Nigrospora oryzae, and entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana. All compounds showed obvious antifeedant activities against silkworm with inhibition percentages of 73-99%, at concentrations of 50 μg/cm2. Compound 11 indicated notable antifeedant activity with inhibition percentage of 93% at concentration of 6.25 μg/cm2 among them. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15 and 16 indicated anti-fungal activities against I. lacteus with MIC values ≤8 μg/mL, compounds 11, 12, 16-18 showed significant anti-fungal activity against N. oryzae with MICs ≤ 4 μg/mL, and compounds 2, 5, 12 and 18 indicated significant anti-fungal activity against B. bassiana with MICs ≤ 8 μg/mL. In addition, the I. lacteus should unite B. bassiana to inhibit the production of phytotoxins from N. oryzae in the ternary culture.
Keywords: Anti-fungal activity; Antifeedant activity; Biological function; Co-culture; Metabolite; Triadic relation.
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