Tiger Nut ( Cyperus esculentus) as a Functional Ingredient in Gluten-Free Extruded Snacks

Foods. 2020 Nov 29;9(12):1770. doi: 10.3390/foods9121770.


Tiger nut (TN) is a nutritious source of gluten-free flour, used generally in healthy beverages, but its incorporation in gluten-free extruded snacks has not been explored. TN flour was blended at different concentrations (up to 70%) with rice flour and soluble fiber, for the development of gluten-free snacks on a twin-screw extruder. The effect of TN inclusion in the formulations was evaluated on relevant physiochemical characteristics of the snacks. Viscoamylograph of the raw formulations showed that TN addition increased (p < 0.01) onset temperature and delayed peak viscosity. In the extruded flours, TN contributed to limit the starch degradation during extrusion. Diameter, expansion ratio, true density, and total pore volume of the extrudates were reduced (pf < 0.01) by the increased TN content in the formulations, while bulk density rose. The surfaces of the extruded snacks were modified by the increasing inclusion of TN in substitution of rice in the formulations. Extrudates containing 10% TN showed the best overall texture profile. Moreover, TN addition enhanced the ash and protein content of the snacks and increased their total antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that incorporation of 10% TN flour into rice-based formulation was suitable for making gluten-free snacks with acceptable physical properties.

Keywords: extrusion; gluten-free; rice flour; snacks; tiger nut.