Changes in Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Musts and Fruit Wines during Simulated Digestion

Molecules. 2020 Nov 27;25(23):5574. doi: 10.3390/molecules25235574.


The content of polyphenols (total phenolic content (TPC)) and the antioxidant activity (AOX) of food products depend on the raw materials used and the technological processes in operation, but transformations of these compounds in the digestive tract are very important. The aim of this study was to determine the TPC, profile of polyphenols, and AOX of apple and blackcurrant musts and wines in order to evaluate the changes occurring in a simulated human digestive system. The research material consisted of apples and blackcurrant, from which musts and fruit wines were obtained. All samples were subjected to three-stage digestion in a simulated human digestive system and then analyzed for the following: TPC (Folin-Ciocalteu method) and profile (HPLC), AOX (method with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid (ABTS) radical), and for the wines also total extract, volatile acidity (International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) method), and sugar profile (HPLC). The antioxidant activity of fruit wines is directly related to the total polyphenol content. Phenolic compounds were transformed during all digestive stages, which led to the formation of compounds with higher antioxidant capacity. The largest increase in polyphenols was observed after the digestive stage in the small intestine. Transformations of phenolic compounds at each digestive stage resulted in the formation of derivatives with higher antioxidant potential.

Keywords: antioxidant activity; fruit wines; in vitro digestion; polyphenols.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Digestion
  • Food Handling
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Intestines / drug effects
  • Intestines / physiology*
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / analysis*
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Antioxidants
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts