Treatment Patterns and Predictors of Adherence in HIV Patients Receiving Single- or Multiple-Tablet Darunavir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Alafenamide

Patient Prefer Adherence. 2020 Nov 23:14:2315-2326. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S272211. eCollection 2020.


Purpose: Darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide can be used as a single-tablet regimen (STR, DRV/c/FTC/TAF) or multiple-tablet regimen (MTR, DRV/c+FTC/TAF) to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study described treatment patterns and predictors of adherence among patients with HIV initiated on DRV/c/FTC/TAF or DRV/c+FTC/TAF.

Patients and methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using linked claims and electronic medical records from Decision Resources Group's Real World Data Repository (7/17/2017-6/1/2019). Treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1 prescribed DRV/c/FTC/TAF or DRV/c+FTC/TAF (index date) were included. Six-month persistence (no treatment gaps >60 and >90 days) and adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC]) to the index regimen were evaluated among patients with ≥6 months of observation post-index. Predictors of low adherence (PDC<80%) were evaluated using a logistic regression model.

Results: Among 2633 eligible patients (49.5 years old, 29% female, 37% African American/Black), 12% were treatment-naïve pre-index and 88% switched from a previous antiretroviral therapy; 84% initiated DRV/c/FTC/TAF and 16% initiated DRV/c+FTC/TAF. Among 822 DRV/c/FTC/TAF patients with ≥6 months of observation post-index, 80% and 86% had no >60- and >90-day gaps in DRV/c/FTC/TAF coverage, respectively, while among 204 DRV/c+FTC/TAF patients with ≥6 months of observation post-index, 69% and 75% had no >60- and >90-day gaps in DRV/c+FTC/TAF coverage, respectively. Mean (median) PDC for the index regimen was 81% (93%) for patients treated with DRV/c/FTC/TAF and 73% (83%) for patients treated with DRV/c+FTC/TAF. Predictors of low adherence included younger age (odds ratio [OR]=2.36, p=0.017), higher Quan-Charlson comorbidity index (OR=1.32, p=0.012), use of MTR regimen at index (OR=1.69, p=0.022), and prior low adherence (OR=2.56, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Among patients initiating a DRV/c-based regimen, those initiating STR had higher 6-month adherence/persistence than those initiating MTR, highlighting the potential benefits of the STR formulation, particularly among younger patients with multiple comorbidities and prior low adherence.

Keywords: HIV; administrative claims; electronic health records; healthcare; patient compliance; protease inhibitors; treatment adherence and compliance.

Grants and funding

This study was supported by Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. The sponsor was involved in the study design, interpretation of results, manuscript preparation, and publication decisions.