Stem cell-derived exosomes for wound healing: current status and promising directions

Minerva Med. 2020 Dec 2. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07205-5. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Wound healing, especially of chronic wounds, is still an unmet therapeutic area since assessment and management are extremely complicated. Although many efforts have been made to treat wounds, all strategies have achieved limited results for chronic wounds. Stem cell-based therapy is considered a promising approach for complex wounds such as those occurring in diabetics. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation significantly improves wound closure, angiogenesis and wound healing. However, cell therapy is complex, expensive and timeconsuming. Recent studies have shown that stem cell-derived exosomes can be an exciting approach to treat wounds. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells can induce benefit in almost all stages of wound healing, including control of immune responses, inhibition of inflammation, promoting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, while reducing scar formation during the wound healing process. This review aims at offering an updated overview of the use of exosomes in biological applications, such as wound healing, and addresses not only current applications but also new directions for this next-generation approach in wound healing.