Towards a Sustainable Public Transportation: Replacing the Conventional Taxis by a Hybrid Taxi Fleet in the West Bank, Palestine

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 1;17(23):8940. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17238940.


Recently, developing sustainable public transportation systems has been highlighted by decision makers and transportation agencies, due to the development of urban areas and the related environmental problems. Implementing new vehicle technologies has been introduced as an appropriate alternative to the conventional taxis. Hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) have been the potential candidates for replacing the conventional taxis, since they are more eco-friendly than conventional ones and even more reliable than electric vehicles (EVs) as a mode of public transportation. In this study, current and future environmental impact assessments have been determined for the taxi fleet in the West Bank, Palestine, and the implications of using new vehicle technologies (hybrid taxis) as a replacement of the conventional taxi fleet have been investigated. In order to perform this study, firstly, the data of the number of taxis for the period of 1994-2018 have been collected and a prediction model for the future number of taxis has been developed. The expected total amounts of consumed fuels have been then estimated. Finally, the current and the future N2O and CO2, and emissions, have been estimated and the expected influences of hybrid taxis have been determined. The results of the analysis have concluded that replacing 50% of conventional taxis with a hybrid fleet could achieve 42.3% and 28% reductions in N2O and CO2, respectively, in the next 10 years. A 395% increase in CH4 could be obtained due to the higher amount of CH4 that is produced by the gasoline combustion compared to the diesel fuel, since hybrid vehicles have gasoline-based engines (GHG in terms of CO2-equivalent could be increased by 28.2%).

Keywords: GHG emissions; environmental impact assessment; greenhouse gas; hybrid vehicles; sustainable public transportation; transportation in Palestine.

MeSH terms

  • Automobiles*
  • Gasoline
  • Middle East
  • Motor Vehicles
  • Transportation
  • Vehicle Emissions* / analysis


  • Gasoline
  • Vehicle Emissions