Vascular anomalies: Classification and management

Handb Clin Neurol. 2021:176:345-360. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64034-5.00003-1.


Vascular anomalies are broadly classified into two major categories: vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Most vascular anomalies are caused by sporadic mosaic gene mutations, and recent genetic studies have advanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in their pathogenesis. These findings have suggested new therapeutic approaches to vascular anomalies, focusing on their pathogenetic mechanism. This chapter seeks to integrate an improved molecular understanding within the updated classification system of the International Society for Study of Vascular Anomalies. We emphasize the genetic, radiologic, and interventional aspects of diagnosis and management in hopes of allowing improved multidisciplinary collaboration surrounding these complex and interesting anomalies.

Keywords: Sclerotherapy; Vascular anomalies; Vascular malformations; Vascular tumors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Vascular Diseases*
  • Vascular Malformations* / genetics
  • Vascular Malformations* / therapy