Effect of Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya L.) Extract on Immune Response (TLR-7, TLR-9) and Inflammation (COX-2) in Rats Induces DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]antrasen)

Pak J Biol Sci. 2020 Jan;23(11):1450-1455. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2020.1450.1455.


Background and objective: TLR is known to regulate the immune system in cancer. TLR-7 and TLR-9 can enhance the antitumor immune system in many types of solid tumors. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a biomarker of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of papaya leaves extract on immune response (TLR 7, TLR 9) and inflammation (COX-2) in rats induced DMBA.

Materials and methods: This experimental study used Sprague dawley female rats of age more less 50 days. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Negative Control (NC), Positive Control (PC), Cancer Drug Doxorubicin (DOXO) and Papaya Leaves Extract (PLE). The study was conducted for 13 weeks. DMBA induction performed for 5 weeks with administration of 2 times per week.

Results: the expression of TLR-7 of PLE and DOXO was higher than PC groups significantly different (p<0.05). The expression of TLR-9 of PLE was higher than NC, PC and DOXO groups but not significantly different (p>0.05) while the expression of COX-2 of PLE and DOXO groups was lower than NC and PC groups but not significantly different (p>0.05).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that papaya leaves extract can improve the immune system and reduce inflammation. It shows that papaya leaves extract has potent as anti-cancer.

Keywords: Papaya leaves; cyclooxygenase (COX-2); immune response; inflammation; tool like receptor (TLR).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • Adaptive Immunity / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / isolation & purification
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Carica* / chemistry
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / blood*
  • Doxorubicin / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Neoplasms / blood
  • Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Leaves* / chemistry
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Toll-Like Receptor 7 / blood*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9 / blood*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Biomarkers
  • Plant Extracts
  • TLR7 protein, rat
  • Tlr9 protein, rat
  • Toll-Like Receptor 7
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9
  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • Doxorubicin
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Ptgs2 protein, rat