Untuned antiviral immunity in COVID-19 revealed by temporal type I/III interferon patterns and flu comparison

Nat Immunol. 2021 Jan;22(1):32-40. doi: 10.1038/s41590-020-00840-x. Epub 2020 Dec 4.


A central paradigm of immunity is that interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses precede pro-inflammatory ones, optimizing host protection and minimizing collateral damage1,2. Here, we report that for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) this paradigm does not apply. By investigating temporal IFN and inflammatory cytokine patterns in 32 moderate-to-severe patients with COVID-19 hospitalized for pneumonia and longitudinally followed for the development of respiratory failure and death, we reveal that IFN-λ and type I IFN production were both diminished and delayed, induced only in a fraction of patients as they became critically ill. On the contrary, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were produced before IFNs in all patients and persisted for a prolonged time. This condition was reflected in blood transcriptomes wherein prominent IFN signatures were only seen in critically ill patients who also exhibited augmented inflammation. By comparison, in 16 patients with influenza (flu) hospitalized for pneumonia with similar clinicopathological characteristics to those of COVID-19 and 24 nonhospitalized patients with flu with milder symptoms, IFN-λ and type I IFN were robustly induced earlier, at higher levels and independently of disease severity, whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines were only acutely produced. Notably, higher IFN-λ concentrations in patients with COVID-19 correlated with lower viral load in bronchial aspirates and faster viral clearance and a higher IFN-λ to type I IFN ratio correlated with improved outcome for critically ill patients. Moreover, altered cytokine patterns in patients with COVID-19 correlated with longer hospitalization and higher incidence of critical disease and mortality compared to flu. These data point to an untuned antiviral response in COVID-19, contributing to persistent viral presence, hyperinflammation and respiratory failure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / immunology
  • Antiviral Agents / metabolism
  • COVID-19 / genetics
  • COVID-19 / immunology*
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Disease Progression
  • Gene Expression / genetics
  • Gene Expression / immunology
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Humans
  • Immunity / genetics
  • Immunity / immunology*
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / genetics
  • Influenza, Human / immunology*
  • Interferon Lambda
  • Interferon Type I / genetics
  • Interferon Type I / immunology*
  • Interferons / genetics
  • Interferons / immunology*
  • Length of Stay
  • Prognosis
  • SARS-CoV-2 / immunology*
  • SARS-CoV-2 / physiology
  • Viral Load / genetics
  • Viral Load / immunology


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Interferon Type I
  • Interferons
  • Interferon Lambda