Orientation Tuning and End-stopping in Macaque V1 Studied with Two-photon Calcium Imaging

Cereb Cortex. 2021 Mar 5;31(4):2085-2097. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhaa346.


Orientation tuning is a fundamental response property of V1 neurons and has been extensively studied with single-/multiunit recording and intrinsic signal optical imaging. Long-term 2-photon calcium imaging allows simultaneous recording of hundreds of neurons at single neuron resolution over an extended time in awake macaques, which may help elucidate V1 orientation tuning properties in greater detail. We used this new technology to study the microstructures of orientation functional maps, as well as population tuning properties, in V1 superficial layers of 5 awake macaques. Cellular orientation maps displayed horizontal and vertical clustering of neurons according to orientation preferences, but not tuning bandwidths, as well as less frequent pinwheels than previous estimates. The orientation tuning bandwidths were narrower than previous layer-specific single-unit estimates, suggesting more precise orientation selectivity. Moreover, neurons tuned to cardinal and oblique orientations did not differ in quantities and bandwidths, likely indicating minimal V1 representation of the oblique effect. Our experimental design also permitted rough estimates of length tuning. The results revealed significantly more end-stopped cells at a more superficial 150 μm depth (vs. 300 μm), but unchanged orientation tuning bandwidth with different length tuning. These results will help construct more precise models of V1 orientation processing.

Keywords: 2-photon calcium imaging; functional maps; macaque; orientation; primary visual cortex (V1).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't