White Paper: Bridging the gap between surveillance data and antimicrobial stewardship in long-term care facilities-practical guidance from the JPIAMR ARCH and COMBACTE-MAGNET EPI-Net networks

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Dec 6;75(Suppl 2):ii33-ii41. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa427.


Background: In long-term care facilities (LTCFs) residents often receive inappropriate antibiotic treatment and infection prevention and control practices are frequently inadequate, thus favouring acquisition of MDR organisms. There is increasing evidence in the literature describing antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) activities in LTCFs, but practical guidance on how surveillance data should be linked with AMS activities in this setting is lacking. To bridge this gap, the JPIAMR ARCH and COMBACTE-MAGNET EPI-Net networks joined their efforts to provide practical guidance for linking surveillance data with AMS activities.

Materials and methods: Considering the three main topics [AMS leadership and accountability, antimicrobial usage (AMU) and AMS, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and AMS], a literature review was performed and a list of target actions was developed. Consensus on target actions was reached through a RAND-modified Delphi process involving 40 experts from 18 countries and different professional backgrounds adopting a One Health approach.

Results: From the 25 documents identified, 25 target actions were retrieved and proposed for expert evaluation. The consensus process produced a practical checklist including 23 target actions, differentiating between essential and desirable targets according to clinical relevance and feasibility. Flexible proposals for AMS team composition and leadership were provided, with a strong emphasis on the need for well-defined and adequately supported roles and responsibilities. Specific antimicrobial classes, AMU metrics, pathogens and resistance patterns to be monitored are addressed. Effective reporting strategies are described.

Conclusions: The proposed checklist represents a practical tool to support local AMS teams across a wide range of care delivery organization and availability of resources.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Infective Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Antimicrobial Stewardship*
  • Humans
  • Long-Term Care
  • Magnets


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents