Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flowers: A potentially rich source of bioactive compounds

Food Chem. 2021 May 15:344:128733. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128733. Epub 2020 Nov 27.


Varieties of chrysanthemums are among the world's most valuable edible ornamental crops. However, the availability and relationship between the bio-chemicals of chrysanthemums and their morphological variations remain unclear. We developed liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to construct a spectral tag library to identify and quantify chemicals of 7 caffeoylquinic acids, 21 flavones and flavonols, 4 carotenoids, and 13 other compounds in 27 cultivars and representative tea of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A correlation analysis found that more acacetin 7-O-galactoside (23) resulted in lighter colored flowers and less acacetin (43) and kaempferol (44) was associated with yellow flowers. Hot-H2O extraction of C. morifolium tea showed that most flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids dissolved out at 30 min, with 20.977 and 8.958 mg/g GW indicated that C. morifolium, which is used in food and tea, is rich in flavonoids and carotenoids. The results improve our understanding of flavonoid biosynthesis and the mechanisms responsible for flower color.

Keywords: Caffeoylquinic acids; Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat; Flavonoids; Flower color; LC-mass spectrometry metabolomics.

MeSH terms

  • Chrysanthemum / chemistry*
  • Flavonoids / analysis*
  • Flowers / chemistry*
  • Quinic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Quinic Acid / analysis


  • Flavonoids
  • caffeoylquinic acid
  • Quinic Acid