Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently performed interventions in general surgery departments. Some of the most important aims in achieving perioperative stability in these patients is diminishing the impact of general anesthesia on the hemodynamic stability and the optimization of anesthetic drug doses based on the individual clinical profile of each patient. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the impact, as monitored through entropy (both state entropy (SE) and response entropy (RE)), that the depth of anesthesia has on the hemodynamic stability, as well as the doses of volatile anesthetic. A prospective, observational, randomized, and monocentric study was carried out between January and December 2019 in the Clinic of Anesthesia and Intensive Care of the "Pius Brînzeu" Emergency County Hospital in Timișoara, Romania. The patients included in the study were divided in two study groups: patients in Group A (target group) received multimodal monitoring, which included monitoring of standard parameters and of entropy (SE and RE); while the patients in Group B (control group) only received standard monitoring. The anesthetic dose in group A was optimized to achieve a target entropy of 40-60. A total of 68 patients met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to one of the two study groups: group A (N = 43) or group B (N = 25). There were no statistically significant differences identified between the two groups for both demographical and clinical characteristics (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were identified for the number of hypotensive episodes (p = 0.011, 95% CI: [0.1851, 0.7042]) and for the number of episodes of bradycardia (p < 0.0001, 95% CI: [0.3296, 0.7923]). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the Sevoflurane consumption between the two study groups (p = 0.0498, 95% CI: [-0.3942, 0.9047]). The implementation of the multimodal monitoring protocol, including the standard parameters and the measurement of entropy for determining the depth of anesthesia (SE and RE) led to a considerable improvement in perioperative hemodynamic stability. Furthermore, optimizing the doses of anesthetic drugs based on the individual clinical profile of each patient led to a considerable decrease in drug consumption, as well as to a lower incidence of hemodynamic side-effects.
Keywords: general anesthesia; patient safety; recovery; response entropy; state entropy.