A Low Complexity Near-Optimal Iterative Linear Detector for Massive MIMO in Realistic Radio Channels of 5G Communication Systems

Entropy (Basel). 2020 Mar 28;22(4):388. doi: 10.3390/e22040388.


Massive multiple-input multiple-output (M-MIMO) is a substantial pillar in fifth generation (5G) mobile communication systems. Although the maximum likelihood (ML) detector attains the optimum performance, it has an exponential complexity. Linear detectors are one of the substitutions and they are comparatively simple to implement. Unfortunately, they sustain a considerable performance loss in high loaded systems. They also include a matrix inversion which is not hardware-friendly. In addition, if the channel matrix is singular or nearly singular, the system will be classified as an ill-conditioned and hence, the signal cannot be equalized. To defeat the inherent noise enhancement, iterative matrix inversion methods are used in the detectors' design where approximate matrix inversion is replacing the exact computation. In this paper, we study a linear detector based on iterative matrix inversion methods in realistic radio channels called QUAsi Deterministic RadIo channel GenerAtor (QuaDRiGa) package. Numerical results illustrate that the conjugate-gradient (CG) method is numerically robust and obtains the best performance with lowest number of multiplications. In the QuaDRiGA environment, iterative methods crave large n to obtain a pleasurable performance. This paper also shows that when the ratio between the user antennas and base station (BS) antennas ( β ) is close to 1, iterative matrix inversion methods are not attaining a good detector's performance.

Keywords: 5G; QuaDRiGa; detection; iterative matrix inversion methods; massive MIMO.