New Fast ApEn and SampEn Entropy Algorithms Implementation and Their Application to Supercomputer Power Consumption

Entropy (Basel). 2020 Aug 5;22(8):863. doi: 10.3390/e22080863.


Approximate Entropy and especially Sample Entropy are recently frequently used algorithms for calculating the measure of complexity of a time series. A lesser known fact is that there are also accelerated modifications of these two algorithms, namely Fast Approximate Entropy and Fast Sample Entropy. All these algorithms are effectively implemented in the R software package TSEntropies. This paper contains not only an explanation of all these algorithms, but also the principle of their acceleration. Furthermore, the paper contains a description of the functions of this software package and their parameters, as well as simple examples of using this software package to calculate these measures of complexity of an artificial time series and the time series of a complex real-world system represented by the course of supercomputer infrastructure power consumption. These time series were also used to test the speed of this package and to compare its speed with another R package pracma. The results show that TSEntropies is up to 100 times faster than pracma and another important result is that the computational times of the new Fast Approximate Entropy and Fast Sample Entropy algorithms are up to 500 times lower than the computational times of their original versions. At the very end of this paper, the possible use of this software package TSEntropies is proposed.

Keywords: approximate entropy; benchmarking; entropy; fast approximate entropy; fast sample entropy; measure of complexity; sample entropy; software comparison; supercomputer power consumption.