Black glutinous rice wine (BGRW) is a popular traditional Chinese rice wine; however, the flavors profiles associated with microbiota changes during its fermentation have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we explored the correlations between microbial communities with physicochemical properties and flavor components during BGRW fermentation. High-throughput sequencing was used to identify the microbial community composition of BGRW at different fermentation stages, and physicochemical properties and volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) were identified via fermentation features testing and headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry. First, we revealed Pantoea and Kosakonia predominated bacterial genera the early stage of BGRW fermentation, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bacillus, and Lactobacillus predominated bacterial genera the later stage, while Rhizopus and Saccharomyces were the predominant fungal genera throughout fermentation. Second, total sugars, titratable acids, pH, ethanol, amino acid nitrogen, and 43 VFCs were detected during fermentation. Twenty-three VFCs were differentially produced according to the linear discriminant analysis effect size method. With the increase of the fermentation time, the kinds and contents of esters and alcohols were also increased, while acids decreased. Moreover, 12 microbial genera, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Cronobacter, Pantoea, Weissella, Enterococcus, Rhizopus, Myceliophthora, Cystofilobasidium, and Aspergillus were found to be highly correlated (|ρ| > 0.7 and P < 0.05) with physicochemical properties and VFCs, by redundancy analysis (RDA) and two-way orthogonal partial least squares (O2PLS) analysis. Ultimately, based on the results, a metabolic map of dominant genera in BGRW was established. Our findings provided detailed information on the dynamic changes of physicochemical properties and VFCs and selection of beneficial strains to improve the quality of BGRW.
Keywords: Black glutinous rice wine; Correlation analysis; High throughput sequencing; Microbial communities; Physicochemical properties; Volatile components.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.