Lyme disease (LD) is an emerging zoonotic infection that is increasing in incidence in North America, Europe, and Asia. With the development of safe and efficacious vaccines, LD can potentially be prevented. Vaccination offers a cost-effective and safe approach for decreasing the risk of infection. While LD vaccines have been widely used in veterinary medicine, they are not available as a preventive tool for humans. Central to the development of effective vaccines is an understanding of the enzootic cycle of LD, differential gene expression of Borrelia burgdorferi in response to environmental variables, and the genetic and antigenic diversity of the unique bacteria that cause this debilitating disease. Here we review these areas as they pertain to past and present efforts to develop human, veterinary, and reservoir targeting LD vaccines. In addition, we offer a brief overview of additional preventative measures that should employed in conjunction with vaccination.