Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome Versus Septic Shock: Early Differentiating Features Despite Overlapping Clinical Profiles

J Pediatr. 2021 Apr;231:162-167. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.12.002. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Abstract

Objectives: To compare the clinical features and resuscitative measures of children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome vs septic shock.

Study design: In this retrospective case-control study, children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome admitted to the intensive care unit from 2007 to 2017 were identified and compared with age-matched controls with septic shock. We studied 9 children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome and 18 children with septic shock. Clinical characteristics were abstracted and between-group differences were compared.

Results: Compared with septic shock controls, children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome were less likely to have an underlying comorbid illness (1/9 [11%] vs 11/18 [61%]; P = .02) and were more likely to have at least 1 of the 5 classic diagnostic signs of Kawasaki disease at presentation (9/9 [100%] vs 0/18 [0%]; P < .001), a longer duration of illness before admission (9 days [IQR, 7-14 days] vs 3 days [IQR, 1-5 days]; P = .004), and a lower platelet count at presentation (140 [IQR 73, 167]) vs 258 [IQR, 137-334]; P = .02). Among patients who underwent echocardiography, abnormalities such as ventricular dysfunction, valvulitis, and coronary artery dilation were more common in the Kawasaki disease shock syndrome cohort (5/9 [56%] vs 0/7 [0%]; P = .03). There were no differences in volume of fluid resuscitation, vasoactive-inotropic scores, duration of inotropic therapy, or biochemical markers of illness severity (other than platelet count) between the matched groups.

Conclusions: A longer duration of illness before admission, lack of any significant underlying medical comorbidities, a lower platelet count, echocardiographic abnormalities, and the presence of classic diagnostic signs of Kawasaki disease at presentation may be useful early features to differentiate Kawasaki disease shock syndrome from septic shock.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / therapy
  • Resuscitation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Shock, Septic / diagnosis*
  • Shock, Septic / therapy
  • Time Factors