Hyperscanning Alone Cannot Prove Causality. Multibrain Stimulation Can

Trends Cogn Sci. 2021 Feb;25(2):96-99. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2020.11.003. Epub 2020 Dec 5.


Brains that work together, couple together through interbrain synchrony. Does interbrain synchrony causally facilitate social interaction? This question cannot be answered by simply recording from multiple brains (hyperscanning). It instead requires causal protocols entailing their simultaneous stimulation (multibrain stimulation). We highlight promising findings and future horizons of this nascent field.

Keywords: causality; hyperscanning; joint action; multibrain stimulation; social interaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain
  • Brain Mapping*
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Humans
  • Social Interaction