Pract Neurol. 2020 Dec 8;practneurol-2020-002680. doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2020-002680. Online ahead of print.


Rhomboencephalitis-inflammation of the brainstem and cerebellum-has myriad clinical presentations including encephalopathy, cranial neuropathies, long tract signs and cerebellar dysfunction and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are a variety of potential underlying causes that respond variably to treatment, including infections, parainfective syndromes, inflammatory disorders including autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here, we review its clinical presentation and outline a practical approach to its investigation, aiming to facilitate prompt diagnosis and confirmation of the underlying cause, to start appropriate management early and optimise the clinical outcome.

Keywords: immunology; infectious diseases; neuroimmunology; neuropathology; neurovirology; virology.

Publication types

  • Review