Cytomegalovirus associated severe pneumonia in three liver transplant recipients

J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020 Nov 30;14(11):1338-1343. doi: 10.3855/jidc.12536.

Abstract

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), is the most common opportunistic infection, remains a cause of life-threatening disease and allograft rejection in liver transplant (LT) recipients. The purpose of this case series is to state that CMV may lead to severe pneumonia along with other bacteria.

Methodology: CMV pneumonia was diagnosed with the thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan findings, bronchoscopic biopsy, real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and clinical symptoms. For extraction of CMV DNA from the clinical sample, EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0 (Qiagen, Germany) was used, and aplification was performed with CMV QS-RGQ Kit (Qiagen, Germany) on Rotor Gene Q 5 Plex HMR (Qiagen, Germany) device.

Results: All recipients had severe pneumonia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and at least two-fold increase in transaminases on seventh, twenty-eighth and twenty-second days after surgery, respectively. Thoracic CT scan revealed as diffuse interstitial infiltration in the lung parenchyma. Bronchoscopy, Gram-staining and culture from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were performed in all of them. During bronchoscopy, a bronchial biopsy was administered to two recipients. One recipient could not be performed procedure because of deep thrombocytopenia. PCR results were positive from serum and BAL fluid. Bronchial biopsy was compatible with CMV pneumonia. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosae was found in two cases and Klebsiella pneumoniae in one case BAL fluid cultures.

Conclusions: CMV pneumonia can be seen simultaneously with bacterial agents due to the indirect effects of the CMV. It should be kept in mind that CMV pneumonia may cause severe clinical courses and can be mortal.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus; liver transplantation; pneumonia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Bacterial Infections / etiology
  • Cytomegalovirus / pathogenicity*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Liver Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Pneumonia, Viral / diagnostic imaging
  • Pneumonia, Viral / etiology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / microbiology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Viral Load