Safety and efficacy of 3D-printed templates assisted CT-guided radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation for the treatment of recurrent cervical carcinoma after external beam radiotherapy

J Gynecol Oncol. 2021 Mar;32(2):e15. doi: 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e15. Epub 2020 Nov 25.


Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of 3-dimensional (3D) printing non-coplanar templates (PNCT) assisted computer tomography (CT) guided radioactive 125I seed implantation (RISI) for the treatment of recurrent cervical carcinoma (RCC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).

Methods: A total of 103 patients with inoperable post-EBRT RCC were included in this retrospective study. A total of 111 lesions received RISI. Eight lesions were at the pelvic center, 75 lesions were at the pelvic lateral, and 28 lesions were extra-pelvic metastasis. The median prescription dose was 120 Gy. The primary end points were adverse events and local control (LC), and the secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival.

Results: Grade 2 adverse events of acute nausea, diarrhea, and pollakiuria occurred in 1, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. One patient suffered from grade 3 acute proctitis. Late toxicity was observed in 2 patients with rectovaginal fistula. No grade 5 toxicity occurred. The 3-year LC and OS rates were 75.1% and 20.8%, respectively. The median OS was 17 months. The multivariate analysis showed that the minimum dose received by the "hottest" 90% of the gross tumor volume (D90) ≥130 Gy, squamous cell carcinoma, hemoglobin ≥80 g/L and good short-term efficacy (complete response or partial response) were independent predictors of LC and OS (all p<0.05).

Conclusions: 3D-PNCT assisted CT-guided RISI is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive modality for RCC. The hemoglobin level, pathological type, dose distribution and short-term efficacy are considered as independent factors for clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Brachytherapy; Image-Guided Radiation Therapy; Interstitial Radiotherapy; Neoplasm Recurrence, Locoregional; Radiation Dosimetry; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms.

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell*
  • Computers
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Thyroid Neoplasms*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Iodine-125