Evaluation of Anthocyanin Content, Antioxidant Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Black, Purple and Blue Colored Wheat Flour and Wheat-Grass Juice against Common Human Pathogens

Molecules. 2020 Dec 8;25(24):5785. doi: 10.3390/molecules25245785.


The present study aimed to analyze the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of anthocyanins extracted from colored wheat flour and wheat-grass juice against human pathogens. The total anthocyanin content and antioxidant potential in colored wheat flour and wheat-grass juice extracts were significantly higher than white flour and wheat-grass juice extracts. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography showed the maximum number of anthocyanin peaks in black wheat, with delphinidin-3-o-galactoside chloride, delphinidin-3-o-glucoside chloride, and cyanindin-3-o-glucoside chloride as the major contributors. Among flour extracts, maximum zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 1934), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1434), Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans (MTCC 227) were produced by black flour extract, having the highest anthocyanin content. It exhibited a minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) of 200 mg/mL against E. coli and C. albicans; and 100 and 150 mg/mL against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Black and purple flour extracts exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 mg/mL against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. White flour extracts did not show MMC against E. coli and C. albicans. Among wheat-grass juice extracts, black wheat-grass was most effective and showed an MIC of 100-150 mg/mL against all pathogens. It exhibited an MMC of 200 mg/mL against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Hence, anthocyanin-rich colored wheat could be of nutraceutical importance.

Keywords: antioxidant; black wheat; black wheat-grass; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC); purple wheat.

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / chemistry*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Flour / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Molecular Structure
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Triticum / chemistry*


  • Anthocyanins
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts