Energy imbalance: obesity, associated comorbidities, prevention, management and public health implications

Adv Obes Weight Manag Control. 2020;10(5):146-161. Epub 2020 Oct 29.


The prevalence of obesity has been continually increasing, as have its associated comorbidities and health care costs. Effective management of obesity and early intervention measures are necessary to overcome this global issue. The responsibility for preventing and managing this global epidemic does not lie solely on an individual, but also on the entire health care system. Policy makers-nationally and globally-must play their roles to solve the issue. In this review article, we examine methods of controlling and managing obesity through interventions, such as a low caloric diet, physical exercise, pharmacological guidance, and bariatric surgical procedures. While health care professionals should educate patients about all available treatment options for severe obesity, bariatric surgical procedures have increased in popularity and are considered very beneficial with outcomes fruitful in managing severe obesity.

Keywords: bariatric surgery; comorbidities; diet; management; obesity.