Aim: To report on the management strategies in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) in middle-income countries. Methods: We conceived a survey of 20 items concerning the management of patients with CUP in daily clinical practice. Only participants from lower- and higher-middle-income countries, as per the World Bank Classification, were eligible for this study. Results: The indications for the first-line treatment did not differ between the two economic regions, whereas those for second-line treatment were more prevalent in higher-middle-income countries. The use of targeted therapy based on immunohistochemistry alone was higher in lower-middle-income countries, although the access to CUP classifiers was similar between the two regions. Conclusions: Proper recommendations must ensure that the economic burden is minimized and that other benefits outweigh the limited survival benefit achieved in patients with CUP.
Keywords: cancer of unknown primary; countries of limited resources; diagnostic; emerging countries; therapeutic management.