Kinetic Chain Exercise Intervention Improved Spiking Consistency and Kinematics in Volleyball Players With Scapular Dyskinesis

J Strength Cond Res. 2022 Oct 1;36(10):2844-2852. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003904. Epub 2020 Dec 9.


Chang, C-C, Chang, C-M, and Shih, Y-F. Kinetic chain exercise intervention improved spiking consistency and kinematics in volleyball players with Scapular Dyskinesis. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2844-2852, 2022-Scapular dyskinesis (SD) is a common problem among volleyball players with chronic shoulder pain. This randomized controlled study examined the effectiveness of kinetic chain (KC) training on neuromuscular performance of the scapula and trunk during volleyball spikes. Forty volleyball players with SD and chronic shoulder pain received 4 weeks of KC training or the conventional shoulder exercise training (CT). Shoulder pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) every week. The kinematics and muscle activation of the shoulder and upper trunk, and proprioceptive feedback magnitude (PFM) for scapular movement consistency, were recorded at the maximum shoulder flexion (T1) and ball contact (T2) during spiking tasks. The two-way repeated measures analysis of variances was used to assess the between-group differences before and after the intervention. The results showed a significant time by group interaction for the upper trunk rotation ( p < 0.001) and PFM ( p = 0.03) at T2. The post-hoc test indicated that the KC group significantly increased contralateral rotation of the upper trunk (9.63 ± 4.19° vs. -4.25 ± 10.05°), and improved movement consistency (error: 8.88 ± 11.52° vs. 19.73 ± 12.79°) at T2 compared with the CT group. Significant time effects were also identified for VAS, scapular upward rotation (T1 and T2), upper trunk contralateral side-bending and PFM at T1, and upper trunk contralateral rotation at T2. In conclusion, both KC and CT training would relieve shoulder pain and improve scapular and trunk movement, whereas the KC program was more effective for increasing scapular movement consistency and upper trunk rotation during volleyball spikes.

Trial registration: NCT03566849.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Dyskinesias*
  • Exercise Therapy
  • Humans
  • Scapula / physiology
  • Shoulder Pain
  • Volleyball* / physiology

Associated data