Objective: To examine the effects of early echocardiography-targeted ibuprofen treatment of large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on survival without cerebral palsy at 24 months of corrected age.
Study design: We enrolled infants born at <28 weeks of gestation with a large PDA on echocardiography at 6-12 hours after birth to ibuprofen or placebo by 12 hours of age in a multicenter, double blind, randomized-controlled trial. Open-label ibuprofen was allowed for prespecified criteria of a hemodynamically significant PDA. The primary outcome was survival without cerebral palsy at 24 months of corrected age.
Results: Among 337 enrolled infants, 109 had a small or closed ductus and constituted a reference group; 228 had a large PDA and were randomized. The primary outcome was assessed at 2 years in 108 of 114 (94.7%) and 102 of 114 (89.5%) patients allocated to ibuprofen or placebo, respectively. Survival without cerebral palsy occurred in 77 of 108 (71.3%) after ibuprofen, 73 of 102 (71.6%) after placebo (adjusted relative risk 0.98, 95% CI 0.83-1.16, P = .83), and 77 of 101 (76.2%) in reference group. Infants treated with ibuprofen had a lower incidence of PDA at day 3. Severe pulmonary hemorrhage during the first 3 days occurred in 2 of 114 (1.8%) infants treated with ibuprofen and 9 of 114 (7.9%) infants treated with placebo (adjusted relative risk 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-1.00, P = .05). Open-label rescue treatment with ibuprofen occurred in 62.3% of infants treated with placebo and 17.5% of infants treated with ibuprofen (P < .001), at a median (IQR) age of 4 (3, 5) and 4 (4, 12) days, respectively.
Conclusions: Early echocardiography-targeted ibuprofen treatment of a large PDA did not change the rate of survival without cerebral palsy.
Trial registration: Eudract 2011-003063-30 and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01630278.
Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; cerebral palsy; patent ductus arteriosus; premature birth.
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