Ubiquitination of RIPK1 regulates its activation mediated by TNFR1 and TLRs signaling in distinct manners

Nat Commun. 2020 Dec 11;11(1):6364. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19935-y.


RIPK1 is a death-domain (DD) containing kinase involved in regulating apoptosis, necroptosis and inflammation. RIPK1 activation is known to be regulated by its DD-mediated interaction and ubiquitination, though underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that K627 in human RIPK1-DD and its equivalent K612 in murine RIPK1-DD is a key ubiquitination site that regulates the overall ubiquitination pattern of RIPK1 and its DD-mediated interactions with other DD-containing proteins. K627R/K612R mutation inhibits the activation of RIPK1 and blocks both apoptosis and necroptosis mediated by TNFR1 signaling. However, Ripk1K612R/K612R mutation sensitizes cells to necroptosis and caspase-1 activation in response to TLRs signaling. Ripk1K612R/K612R mice are viable, but develop age-dependent reduction of RIPK1 expression, spontaneous intestinal inflammation and splenomegaly, which can be rescued by antibiotic treatment and partially by Ripk3 deficiency. Furthermore, we show that the interaction of RIPK1 with FADD contributes to suppressing the activation of RIPK3 mediated by TLRs signaling. Our study demonstrates the distinct roles of K612 ubiquitination in mRIPK1/K627 ubiquitination in hRIPK1 in regulating its pro-death kinase activity in response to TNFα and pro-survival activity in response to TLRs signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mutation
  • Necroptosis / physiology
  • Phosphorylation
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics*
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / genetics*
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Splenomegaly / pathology
  • Transcriptome
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Ubiquitination*


  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
  • TNFRSF1A protein, human
  • Tnfrsf1a protein, mouse
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • RIPK1 protein, human
  • RIPK3 protein, human
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Ripk1 protein, mouse