Development of a Yoga Program for Type-2 Diabetes Prevention (YOGA-DP) Among High-Risk People in India

Front Public Health. 2020 Nov 17;8:548674. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.548674. eCollection 2020.


Introduction: Many Indians are at high-risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Yoga is an ancient Indian mind-body discipline, that has been associated with improved glucose levels and can help to prevent T2DM. The study aimed to systematically develop a Yoga program for T2DM prevention (YOGA-DP) among high-risk people in India using a complex intervention development approach. Materials and Methods: As part of the intervention, we developed a booklet and a high-definition video for participants and a manual for YOGA-DP instructors. A systematic iterative process was followed to develop the intervention and included five steps: (i) a systematic review of the literature to generate a list of Yogic practices that improves blood glucose levels among adults at high-risk of or with T2DM, (ii) validation of identified Yogic practices by Yoga experts, (iii) development of the intervention, (iv) consultation with Yoga, exercise, physical activity, diet, behavior change, and/or diabetes experts about the intervention, and (v) pretest the intervention among Yoga practitioners and lay people (those at risk of T2DM and had not practiced Yoga before) in India. Results: YOGA-DP is a structured lifestyle education and exercise program, provided over a period of 24 weeks. The exercise part is based on Yoga and includes Shithilikarana Vyayama (loosening exercises), Surya Namaskar (sun salutation exercises), Asana (Yogic poses), Pranayama (breathing practices), and Dhyana (meditation) and relaxation practices. Once participants complete the program, they are strongly encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle in the long-term. Conclusions: We systematically developed a novel Yoga program for T2DM prevention (YOGA-DP) among high-risk people in India. A multi-center feasibility randomized controlled trial is in progress in India.

Keywords: Yoga; diet; lifestyle; physical activity; prediabetes; prevention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / prevention & control
  • Exercise
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Meditation*
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Yoga*