Differential effects of photobiomodulation interval schedules on brain cytochrome c-oxidase and proto-oncogene expression

Neurophotonics. 2020 Oct;7(4):045011. doi: 10.1117/1.NPh.7.4.045011. Epub 2020 Dec 8.


Significance: Transcranial photobiomodulation (PBM) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique capable of producing changes in the mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase (CCO) activity of neurons. Although the application of PBM in clinical practice and as a neurophysiological tool is increasing, less is known about how different treatment time intervals may result in different outcomes. Aim: We evaluated the effects of different PBM treatment intervals on brain metabolic activity through the CCO and proto-oncogene expression (c-Fos). Approach: We studied PBM effects on brain CCO and c-Fos expression in three groups of animals: Control (CN, n = 8 ), long interval PBM treatment (LI, n = 5 ), and short interval PBM treatment (SI, n = 5 ). Results: Increased CCO activity in the LI group, compared to the SI and CN groups, was found in the prefrontal cortices, dorsal and ventral striatum, and hippocampus. Regarding c-Fos expression, we found a significant increase in the SI group compared to LI and CN, whereas LI showed increased c-Fos expression compared to CN in the cingulate and infralimbic cortices. Conclusions: We show the effectiveness of different PBM interval schedules in increasing brain metabolic activity or proto-oncogene expression.

Keywords: c-Fos; cytochrome c-oxidase; photobiomodulation; prefrontal cortex; striatum.