Thyroid nodules are a very common clinical condition. The 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommend surgical excision for Bethesda IV nodules. The use of intraoperative frozen section (FS) has been recommended as a strategy to tailor the extent of the initial surgery. We critically evaluated the literature that discusses the utility and cost-effectiveness of FS to make an intraoperative decision in patients with thyroid nodules classified as follicular neoplasm. FS should not be recommended as a routine intraoperative test to assess for malignancy in thyroid follicular patterned lesions due to its low performance; the high number of deferred results; the inability to adequately assess histologically defining features; the improvements in risk stratification guiding total thyroidectomy; and the low cost-effectiveness of FS.
Keywords: Carcinoma; Follicular neoplasm; Frozen section; Thyroid nodule; Thyroidectomy.
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