Cisplatin, which induces DNA damage, is standard chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer (BCa). However, efficacy is limited due to resistance development. Since artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin originating from Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity, and to inhibit DNA damage repair, the impact of artesunate on cisplatin-resistant BCa was evaluated. Cisplatin-sensitive (parental) and cisplatin-resistant BCa cells, RT4, RT112, T24, and TCCSup, were treated with ART (1-100 µM). Cell growth, proliferation, and cell cycle phases were investigated, as were apoptosis, necrosis, ferroptosis, autophagy, metabolic activity, and protein expression. Exposure to ART induced a time- and dose-dependent significant inhibition of tumor cell growth and proliferation of parental and cisplatin-resistant BCa cells. This inhibition was accompanied by a G0/G1 phase arrest and modulation of cell cycle regulating proteins. ART induced apoptos is by enhancing DNA damage, especially in the resistant cells. ART did not induce ferroptosis, but led to a disturbance of mitochondrial respiration and ATP generation. This impairment correlated with autophagy accompanied by a decrease in LC3B-I and an increase in LC3B-II. Since ART significantly inhibits proliferative and metabolic aspects of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant BCa cells, it may hold potential in treating advanced and therapy-resistant BCa.
Keywords: apoptosis; artesunate (ART); autophagy; bladder cancer (BCa); cisplatin resistance; growth inhibition.