Adiponectin is the adipokine associated with insulin sensitization, reducing liver gluconeogenesis, and increasing fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake. Adiponectin is present in the kidneys, mainly in the arterial endothelium and smooth muscle cells, as well as in the capillary endothelium, and might be considered as a marker of many negative factors in chronic kidney disease. The last few years have brought a rising body of evidence that adiponectin is a multipotential protein with anti-inflammatory, metabolic, anti-atherogenic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) protective actions. Similarly, adiponectin has shown many positive and direct actions in kidney diseases, and among many kidney cells. Data from large cross-sectional and cohort studies showed a positive correlation between serum adiponectin and mortality in chronic kidney disease. This suggests a complex interaction between local adiponectin action, comorbidities, and uremic milieu. In this review we discuss the role of adiponectin in chronic kidney disease.
Keywords: adiponectin receptors; atherosclerosis; bone; diabetes; dialysis; kidney; obesity; transplantation; vasculature.