Genetic context of extended spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacterales and its association with plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME) and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) resistance is little known from North India. Therefore, the current study was aimed to investigate the frequency of Non-β-Lactam antibiotic resistance associated genes in extended spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacterales. For this study, Non-Duplicate phenotypically confirmed ESBL producing Enterobacterales isolates (N = 186) were analyzed for ESBLs, PMQRs, AMEs and TMP-SMX resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR detected presence of PMQR genes in 81.29% (N = 139) of ESBL isolates (N = 171), AME genes in 60.82% and TMP-SMX resistance genes in 63.74% of the isolates. Molecular characterization of ESBL producing Enterobacterales showed 84.79% blaTEM followed by 73.68% blaCTX-M, 43.86% blaSHV, 19.88% blaPER and 9.94% blaVEB, respectively. Analysis of PMQR genes revealed 77.7% aac(6')-lb-cr the most commonly detected gene followed by 67.63% oqxB, 62.59% oqxA, 43.17% qnrB, 19.42% qnrD, 18.7% qnrS, 9.35% qnrA, 3.6% qepA and 2.88% qnrC, respectively. Analysis of AMEs gene profile demonstrated 81.73% aac(6')-Ib, the most frequently encountered gene followed by 46.15% aph(3')-Ia, 44.23% ant(3")-Ia, respectively. A 100% prevalence of sul1, followed by dfrA (54.63%) and sul2 (15.74%) was observed. In summary, prevalence of ESBL-Producing genes (particularly blaTEM and blaCTX-M) along with PMQR, AMEs, and TMP-SMX resistant genes may potentially aid in the transfer of antimicrobial resistance among these strains.
Keywords: Enterobacterales; Gram-negative bacteria; aminoglycoside modifying enzymes; extended spectrum β-Lactamase; plasmid mediated quinolone resistance; trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance.